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scale length cars (80'-85') are modeled. In HO, each full-length car will require about a f oot. However, Con-Cor and Athearn make cars in the range of 70'-75' that have a s atisfactory appearance if not mingled with those of prototype lengths. Harrimanstyle cars in 60' lengths are available from M DC/Roundhouse. Head-end cars typi cally are shorter from 60' to 70' and require less track length for their facilities. The second variable in designing terminal and coach yard track lengths is consist length: how many cars do you plan to use in your passenger trains? An eight-car train (RPO, baggage, two coaches, diner, two sleepers, sleeper/lounge/observation) would require about 8 ', one foot per car, plus length for the motive power. Consists w ere discussed above in terms of trains f or various prototype markets. Selective c ompression can be used to adjust train length to space. For example, use the winter-length California Zephyr instead of the summer peak to cut coaches from four to two, and sleepers from four or five (including a sleeper leased for the season from a f oreign road) to just two between the diner and the dome observation. The number of head-end cars can also be reduced from multiple mail storage and express cars to one of each, which would still require s witching to the two different buildings/ tracks. For additional discussions of consists, see Chubb, H ow to Operate Your Model Railroad, Chapter 4, pp. 39-42, and Mallery, The Complete Handbook of Model Railroad Operations, Chapter 9, Passenger Operations, pp. 181-191. Station trackage also needs to be long enough to accommodate the motive power. Three diesel E units will require almost a foot per unit. On a model railroad, a minimum number of tracks for a terminal would be two, one on each side of a common passenger platform (see Figure 6). This pair would accommodate one departing and one arriving train. If the assumed traffic level on t he layout was three trains a day each w ay, three coach yard tracks would be a dequate assuming a servicing cycle of less than 12 hours. Trains would arrive in early morning, around noon and at dinnertime. Departures would be scheduled for 8 AM, late afternoon and about 9 PM. See Armstrongs Traffic Planning for Realistic Oper-ation (Figure 1-11) for stub terminal t rackage arrangements with more plat forms and with and without engine escape crossover tracks. For the model railroad, e ngine escape crossovers increase com plexity and space requirements without g reatly improving operations. Note the suggestions for careful attention to design of the throat.

Service building

Car Washer Lead Mainline To terminal

Figure 7 Single-ended Coach Yard in Loop

18 10 18 10 18 Figure 8 Coach Yard Platform Spacing Edge of platform to track center = 5 6 tice, such platforms were usually at track level, not raised to car floor level, although some railroads with heavy commuter traffic did use high level platforms. Baggage was handled from the baggage room in the station out to the checked baggage car by rolling carts or wagons out to the platform and placed alongside the baggage car(s). A track to hold one or two private or business cars might also be included in the station trackage pattern. The head house (station b uilding) need only be a shallow facade with butterfly sheds over each platform or a massive train shed (but train sheds conceal t he trains!). Many station and platformshed kits are available in HO, although s ome have European characteristics that can be removed for US use. The following dimensions are given for the width of the passenger platforms within the station as recommended by the American Railway Engineering Association: Combined passengers and wagons: 20' Exclusive passengers: 17' Exclusive wagons: 11' C learance between platform edge and o bstructions such as stairs, elevators and ramps: 6' or three cars such as RPOs, mail storage or express cars at the two buildings should be sufficient to handle the amount of mail and express being moved. The Railway Express Agency building typically would be brick, w ith the name painted on the building. T he Post Office building might be con crete, with the name carved in the concrete o ver the front entrance. A typical place ment of the post office and express tracks and buildings would be parallel and to the same side of the passenger platforms at the terminal. Such an arrangement occurred in New Orleans, Washington, D.C., and Chicago (Dearborn Station). A car-floor-height platform between each pair of tracks made for more efficient handling of cargo. When cars were spotted side by side, doors could be aligned so that bridge ramps could be placed between the cars so that hand trucks or forklifts could move from the platform, through the first car and into the second, parallel car. In some major terminals, such as Kansas City, mail was loaded and unloaded from RPOs and mail storage cars on the s tation platform and moved to and from the Post Office building by conveyor belts under the tracks or the station concourse. H owever, this arrangement cuts back on switching moves, which model railroaders would tend to want to increase rather than r educe. One way to conserve space at a model railroad terminal would be to have

Mail and Express
Also near the passenger platforms would be a post office with its tracks and a railway express building with its tracks. For a small layout, one or two tracks holding two

Platform Design and Modeling
Typically, each passenger platform had a track on either side. In American prac-

APRIL 2002

MODEL RAILROADING 41

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